0 comments Wednesday, 18 March 2009
An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. An ecosystem is a completely independent unit of interdependent organisms which share the same habitat. Ecosystems usually form a number of food webs which show the interdependence of the organisms within the ecosystem.[1] he term ecosystem was coined in 1930 by Roy Clapham to denote the combined physical and biological components of an environment. British ecologist Arthur Tansley later refined the term, describing it as "The whole system,… including not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment".[2] Tansley regarded ecosystems not simply as natural units, but as "mental isolates".[2] Tansley later[3] defined the spatial extent of ecosystems using the term "ecotope".
Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms interact with every other element in their local environment. Eugene Odum, a founder of ecology, stated: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms (ie: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (ie: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem."[4] The human ecosystem concept is then grounded in the deconstruction of the human/nature dichotomy and the premise that all species are ecologically integrated with each other, as well as with the abiotic constituents of their biotope.
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Berita Kepada Kawan by Ebiet G.Ade


Perjalanan ini terasa sangat menyedihkan
Sayang engkau tak duduk disampingku kawan
Banyak cerita yang mestinya kau saksikan
Di tanah kering bebatuan
Ho ho ho ho

Tubuhku tergoncang dihempas batu jalanan
Hati tergetar menampak kering rerumputan
Perjalanan ini pun seperti jadi saksi
Gembala kecil menangis sedih

Kawan coba dengar apa jawabnya
Ketika ia kutanya mengapa
Bapak ibunya telah lama mati
Ditelan bencana tanah ini

Sesampainya di laut
Kukhabarkan semuanya
Kepada karang
Kepada ombak
Kepada matahari

Tetapi semua diam
Tetapi semua bisu
Tinggal aku sendiri
Terpaku menatap langit...

Barangkali di sana ada jawabnya
Mengapa di tanahku terjadi bencana

Mungkin Tuhan mulai bosan
Melihat tingkah kita
Yang selalu salah dan bangga
Dengan dosa-dosa

Atau alam mulai enggan
Bersahabat dengan kita
Coba kita bertanya pada
Rumput yang bergoyang
Ho ho ho ho
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A forest is an area with a high density of trees. There are many definitions of a forest, based on various criteria.[1] These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area) and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. Historically, "forest" meant an uncultivated area legally set aside for hunting by feudal nobility, and these hunting forests were not necessarily wooded much if at all (see Royal Forest). However, as hunting forests did often include considerable areas of woodland, the word forest eventually came to mean wooded land more generally. A woodland is ecologically distinct from a forest.
The latitudes 10° north and south of the Equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N with boreal forest.
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A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea (e.g. the Caspian Sea) or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called streams , creeks, brooks, rivulets, rills, and many other terms, but there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are used only in specific geographical locations and not elsewhere such as Burn in Scotland and North-east England. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek,[1] but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language.[2]
A river is a component of the hydrological cycle. The water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, [as seen at baseflow conditions / during periods of lack of precipitation] and release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks, such as at melting glacier.
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Logging is the process in which certain trees are cut down for forest management and timber. In forestry the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a mill or a lumber yard. In common usage however the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft. In common usage what is sometimes called clearcut logging is not is necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvest or silviculture method and is simply called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred as logging contractors. Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded to create artificial dams and reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question.

Logging method :
  • Tree-length logging
    Trees are felled and then delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is then transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash (and the nutrients it contains) in the cut area where it must be further treated if wildland fires are of concern.
  • Full-tree logging
    Trees are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. The trees are then delimbed, topped, and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of clean electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting also refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. [4] This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, however, depending on the species, many of the limbs are often broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
  • Cut-to-length logging
    Big trees are felled, delimbed, bucked, and sorted (pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree, delimb and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by the forwarder. This method is usable for smaller timber on ground flat enough that forwarders can operate, but does not work well on steep slopes.
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Rain Forest


Tropical rainforest is one of the earth's most spectacular natural wonders! It seems to be mysterious for many people. A place of wilderness, where there are lots of trees and few people living in. In fact, they are so called because they grow in those parts of the world where there is heavy rain all the year round. They flourish in or near the tropics, the hot regions that lie either side of the equator. The atmosphere in a tropical rainforest is permanently humid – hot and damp.

A rainforest is often referred to as a jungle, which is a Hindi word from India meaning a wilderness. A true jungle is a thick tangle of vegetation, through which people have to force and cut their way. Rainforests contain patches of jungle, but mainly they are more open. The forest floor is covered with rotting leaves. Rainforest trees are very tall broadleaved evergreens. The tallest trees have buttress roots, wing-like growths that spread out from the base of the trunk to act as props, while others have stilt roots which grow down from the trunk or branches, often in graceful arches. All the trees carry their branches and leaves at the top of long slender trunks, forming a huge umbrella-like green canopy. The dense canopy filters much of the daylight, leaving a shady green world beneath it.

The rainforests contain more different species of plants and animals than any other part of the world – even more than the oceans that cover nearly three-quarters of the earth. A forest in the tropics has between five and twenty times as many species of trees as one in the temperate zone of North America or Europe, but there are relatively few of each species. Rainforests provide a home for many of the world's most fascinating animals.

The rainforests are a vast storehouse of substances potentially useful to humans. We already owe many of our foods and medicines to them, as well as much of our timber. Sadly, having survived virtually unchanged for millions of years, these precious rainforests are now being destroyed at an alarming rate.

retrive from
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Belum Forest

0 comments Tuesday, 17 March 2009

Belum Valley is located, midway between the East and West Coasts. The nearest towns are Grik in Perak and Jeli in Kelantan which are connected by the scenic East-West Highway. Kuala Lumpur to Belum takes six hours by road. Join the North-South Highway and exit at Kuala Kangsar. Head for Grik and then to Pulau Banding. It is also accessible from Baling in Kedah via Pengkalan Hulu from the north. From Kota Bharu it's a three-hour drive. The nearest railway station is Kuala Kangsar, a long way off.

This remote area of Perak was once the battlefield between the Malaysian security forces and the communist bandits. Known as the Bamboo Trail, an infiltration route for the communist terrorists into Malaysia, the trail passes through secondary forest, bamboo forest and lowland primary jungles.

Virtually untouched by mankind and with the lifting of the curfew in 1991, Belum is slowly exposing it's well kept secrets to the outside world. This last frontier of Malaysia beckons the adventurous to its everlasting charm.

The main activity available is trekking and fishing as the area is part of the Temenggor Dam or also known as Banding Lake.

Excerpted from

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Hijau by Zainal Abidin

0 comments Monday, 16 March 2009

Bumi yang tiada rimba
Seumpama hamba
Dia dicemar manusia
Yang jahil ketawa

Bumi yang tiada udara
Bagai tiada nyawa
Pasti hilang suatu hari
Tanpa disedari

Bumi tanpa lautan
Akan kehausan
Pasti lambat laun hilang
Duniaku yang malang

*Dewasa ini kita saling merayakan
Kejayaan yang akhirnya membinasakan
Apalah gunanya kematangan fikiran
Bila dijiwa kita masih lagi muda dan mentah
Ku lihat hijau

Oo... anok-anok
Tok leh meghaso mandi laok
Bersaing main ghama-ghama

Ale lo ni tuo umornyo berjuto
Kito usoho jauh ke daghi mala petako

Ozon lo ni koho nipih nak nak aghi
Keno make asak hok biso, weh
Pasa maknusio

Seghemo bendo-bendo di dunio
Tok leh tehe
Sapa bilo-bilo

Bumiku yang kian pudar
Siapa yang melihat
Di kala kita tersedar
Mungkinkah terlewat

Korupsi, oppressi, obsessi diri
Polussi, depressi di bumi kini

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An Awareness Campaign : Preserving Our Streams and Rivers

Location : Tanah Aina, Raub, Pahang

Date : 28 February 2009

This campaign had been organized by final year students of BSc.(Hons) Business Computing (CS224)from UiTM Malaysia that had attended the class of Social, Ethical and Professional Issues (ITS610) lectured by Assoc. Prof Rashidah Rawi.

We had started the trip to Raub, Pahang early in the morning. Our first checkpoint is called 8 Acres. We dropped out from the bus at the roadside near the 8 Acres and walked in groups to reach at the waterfall and streams area. Then we started our exploration on the waterfall and streams overthere. The water is really clean and cold and the air is fresh. It make us like never wanted to come out from there and just enjoying the beauty of the nature.

Tanah Aina is privately owned by Puan Sri Shariffa Sabrina Syed Akil. Besides 8 Acres, she also owned another 2 places named as 12 Acres and Lentang. Actually, Puan Sri Sabrina bought these lands in her own efforts to preserve the forest that is still untouched within millions of years.

After finishing our exploration at 8 Acres in about 4 hours, we packed up our things and continued our trip to 12 Acres. We had our lunch and breaks there. At the same time, we had done some photography session within the 12 Acres area. This place is actually an orchard that is full with durian trees and others. We also had been treated with durian fruits and it is really delicious!

Around 4.30 p.m., we continued our trip to Lentang. At this place, again we had done our exploration on streams and we also had climbed a hill (but actually we're using a stairs). From up there we saw some part of Karak Highway with the surrounding is green and beautiful. After the exploration, we had another photography session with the owner of the place, our beloved lecturer and the rest of the classmates.

We also had some speech firstly by the Program Manager (Miss Faiza), next by our Advisor Lecturer (Pn. Rashidah) and lastly by the owner of Tanah Aina (Puan Sri Sabrina). After that we altogether had sing a song entitled Hijau originally sang by Zainal Abidin.

A few hours later, we end the trip right after having dinner and break for pray. After that, started our trip back to UiTM Malaysia at Shah Alam. We arrived at 11 p.m..